Perceived intergroup similarity/dissimilarity is a crucial factor determining attitudes towards other groups, and correlate also with conflict. Which beliefs matter when we’re talking about these correlations? Do we mean a belief paradigm, like those consistent with many religions? Or do we mean beliefs related to a group’s (or individual’s) relative welfare, such as humiliation? Or do we mean beliefs which relate to how individuals and societies view those outside of their particular in-group, such as nationalism or racism?